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1. What is a nucleic acid?
2. What are the two main functiuons of DNA?
3. What are DNA molecules made of?
4. What does the DNA molecule look like?
5. What are the base pairing rules?
6. Who discovered the structure of DNA
7. What is DNA replication and what happens during it?
8. What is a mutation?
9. What are some differences between RNA & DNA
10. What are the three kinds of RNA?
11. What is Protein Synthesis and where does it take place?
12. How does Protein Synthesis occur?
13. What joins amino acids together to form a protein?
14. Where do amino acids come from - floating in the cytosol of our cells?
15. What are some important proteins that we make or synthesize?
A ______________ _____________ macromolecule
1. To _________________ information and to direct activities of the cell.
2. To _________________ itself exactly for new cells that are created.
Two strands of repeating _______________________.
A nucleotide has three parts:
1. ____________________________ = a sugar
2. ____________________________ = PO4
Adenine and Guanine have two rings of carbon are called ____________________
Thymine and Cytosine have one ring of carbon are called ____________________
A _______________________ ladder (Double Helix) helical
Adenine always bonds with __________________________
Cytosine always bonds with __________________________
In 1953, Francis _______________________ and James _____________________________
- The proposed the model of DNA in which two nucleotide chains wrap around each other to form a double spiral - similar to a spiral staircase. They called it a ___________________________
- The relied heavily on scientific evidence reported by other scientists to construct their model. Evidence like the _________________________________________ studied by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins.
- Crick, Watson, & Wilkins received the ____________________________ in Medicine in 1962.
The process of ___________________________ DNA in a cell is called replication
1. The two chains of DNA separate at the _______________________________ by enzyme called ___________________
2. Enzymes called __________________________________ move down each half strand and binds new _____________________ to the existing DNA chains.
3. When replication is completed, two new exact copies of the original DNA molecules are produced and the cell is ready to _________________________________________.
A _________________________________ in the nucleotide sequence at even one location will cause a ___________________ and can have serious effects in new cells. Chemicals and ultraviolet radiation from the cune can damage DNA which can lead to _________________________________. Enzymes, called ___________________ are constrantly proofreading and ____________________________ errors that occur.
1. _____________________________ RNA
2. _____________________________ RNA
3. _____________________________ RNA
The _________________________ of proteins and it takes place on the _________________________.
1. _________________________ - genetic information is copied from DNA to ________________.
2. Messenger RNA's code is in three base groups called ______________________.
3. Condons attach to ribosimes and each one codes for an ____________________________________.
4. _______________________________ - the process of assembling the protein from information encoded in Messenger RNA. This process begins when the ____________________________ leaves the __________________ membrane and then migrates to a ___________________________ in the cytosol.
5. ________________________________ floating freely in the cytosol are transported to the ribosomes by the _________________________
6. The tRNA has a sequence of three nucleotides call an _______________________, which is complementary to and pairs with its corresponding ___________________________.
A ___________________________ bond joins amino acids to make a _____________________________.
The ______________________________ we eat
1. ___________________________________ - found in out red blood cells; function in carrying O2
2. ___________________________________ - help fight off viruses and bacteria that invade the body.
3. ___________________________________ - control chemical reactions in the body.
1. ___________________________________ - water proofing protein on our skin.
2. ___________________________________ - proteins which make up our muscles.
3. ___________________________________ - found in cartilage and other connective tissue.